Introduction to Business MGT211 Notes
#1
MGT211 Introduction to Business
Notes

**QUESTION: Define Globalization.

**ANSWER: Globalization is development of extensive worldwide patterns of economic relationships between nations.
 
**QUESTION: What do you mean by Business & Marketing? What is the relation between business and marketing?

**ANSWER: Business is defined as every human activity which is engaged in for the sake of earning profits. Marketing includes all those activities involved in the flow of goods and services from the point of production to the point of consumption. The success of every business depends upon the efficiency with which its goods are marketed. If the business unit may not be in a position to sells its products, then all the efforts made for production may not bear fruits. In view of this business units give much importance to marketing.
 
**QUESTION: what is meant by the producers, wholesalers, retailers, transporters, banks, warehouse-keepers, advertisers and consumers?
**ANSWER: Producers are the persons who produce/ manufacture the products for use by the consumers. Wholesalers are the persons who purchase goods in large quantities from producers and sell them to retailers in small quantities. Retailers are the persons who purchase goods in small quantities from wholesalers and sell them to ultimate consumers. Transporter is a business or person involved in the transport of goods or services Bank is a commercial or state institution that provides financial services, including issuing money in various forms, receiving deposits of money, lending money and processing transactions and the creating of credit. Warehouse keepers are the persons who are performing warehousing duties by providing safety of the goods stored.
Advertiser is a person who performs the function of advertising. Advertising attracts consumers and gives information about products and services. Consumers refers to individuals that purchase and use goods and services offered by a business.
 
**QUESTION: Define shareholders.
**ANSWER: A shareholder is an individual or company (including a corporation) that legally owns one or more shares of stock in a joint stock company. A company's shareholders collectively own that company. The shareholders elect the directors by using the right of vote. Similarly the appointment, removal of directors, auditors and secretary are also made by the shareholders on the basis of voting. They receive dividend on shares. They have a right to share in assets of the company on its liquidation.

Accountant: a qualified person who is skilled at managing and analysing business financial records.
 Account payee only: words often written on crossed cheques, which direct the bank to pay the cheque only to the bank account of the payee.
 Accounts payable: is money you owe to suppliers and other business creditors as a result of purchases of stock and other expenses such as overheads and taxes.
 Accounts receivable: a record of what is owed to you. All of the credit
"Accounts" - the record of what each customer owes you - taken together are your "accounts receivable".
 Acquisitions: in relation to the GST, acquisitions include the things you buy (goods, services and anything else) for your business. They also include many other transactions, such as obtaining advice or information, taking out a lease of business premises or hiring business equipment.
 Actuary: a mathematician whose work is mainly concerned with insurance and finance.
 Ad valorem: according to value. Applied to customs duty, it means a percentage charge on the value, rather than the weight or quantity of goods.
 Affidavit: a declaration in writing on oath, made before a person legally qualified for the purpose.
 Amortise: the gradual process of writing off the cost of an asset, or paying off a liability by means of a sinking fund, over a period of time.
 Articles of association: the basic document of a registered company defining its internal organisation. It is one of two fundamental documents on which the registration of a company is based. See memorandum of association.
 Asset: anything of worth that is owned. The assets of a business are money in the bank, accounts receivable, securities held in the name of the business, property or buildings, equipment, fixtures, merchandise for sale or being made, supplies and all things of value that the business owns.
 Audit: detailed checking of the financial records of a business by an independent qualified person (auditor) in order to verify their correctness or to detect errors or fraud.
 Authorised capital: the total amount of capital which a company, by its memorandum of association, is authorised to offer for subscription. See also, paid up capital.
 Award: an agreement having the force of law, which sets out working conditions and wages for certain types of employment.
 Bad debts: money owed to you that you can't collect
 Balance: the amount of money remaining in an account. The total of your money in the bank after accounting for all transactions (deposits and withdrawals) is called a "balance".
 Balance sheet: an important business document that shows what a business owns and owes as of the date shown. Essentially a "balance sheet" is a list of business assets and their cost on one side and a list of liabilities and owners' equity (investment in the business) on the other side with the amount for each. The liabilities include all that the business owes.
 Bank draft: a written instruction to a bank’s agent to pay a sum of money to the person specified on the draft. A safe and convenient way of remitting money overseas.
 Bank reconciliation: a comparison between the bank’s records of transactions and the record of the firm’s cash book. After taking into account such items as unpresented cheques and bank charges etc., the two records should show an identical balance.
 Bankrupt: a debtor, who has volunteered or been forced to appear before a Bankruptcy Court and has been judged insolvent, because s/he has insufficient assets to meet the demands of all creditors.
 Bill of sale: a document under seal, which formally transfers ownership of property specified in the document from the borrower to the lender, until such time as the debt has been paid in full.
 Bona fide: in good faith, honestly, without fraud, collusion or participation in wrong doing.
 Bond: payment by a tenant to a landlord before the tenant takes over the premises and from which the landlord may be able to deduct arrears of rent or the cost of rectifying damage.
 Bookkeeping: the process of recording business transactions in the accounting records
 Break-even point: the point at which volume of sales is enough to cover all costs.
 Bridging loan: a loan to provide short-term finance, usually to buy property or land, where the loan is to be cleared by longer-term borrowing, or the sale of assets.
 Budget: an estimate of expenses and revenue required.
 Business Activity Statement: a single form used to report business tax entitlements and obligations, including the amount of GST payable and your input tax credits.
 Business name: the name of a business officially listed in the state or territory Register of Business Names.
 Capital: the total owned and borrowed funds in a business.
 Capital gain: a financial gain made from selling fixed assets such as land, buildings, or a business at a price above the original purchase price.
 Capital requirement: a list of expenses that must be met to establish a business. Even before a business is started, the owner should start keeping records.
 Cash: includes all money in the bank, in the cash drawer and in petty cash.
Banknotes, coins, bills and negotiable securities (like cheques) is cash. But so is the money you can draw on demand - your bank accounts or savings accounts also represent "cash".
 Cash book: a record of cash payments and receipts, showing these under various categories.
 Cash discount: a deduction that is given for prompt payment of a bill.
 Cash flow: the flow of internal funds generated within the business as a
Result of receipts from debtors, payments to creditors, drawings and cash
Sales.
 Contingent liability: a liability which will only arise upon the happening of a
Certain event, for example, the guarantor of a loan being asked to honour the
Guarantee if the borrower defaults.
 Contract: a legally binding agreement between two or more parties.
 Cash receipts: the money received by a business from customers
 Caveat emptor: let the buyer beware. The condition of sale is that the
Purchase is at the buyer’s risk.
 Collateral: security provided by a borrower to cover the possibility that
The loan will not be repaid.
 Company: a business owned by a group of people called shareholders,
Which has its own legal identity separate from its owners.
 Consumer price index (CPI): a measure of the aggregate rise or fall in
Prices of commonly used goods and services, published by the
Commonwealth Government as a basis, among other things, for deciding
What overall increases should be made to wages and salaries?
 Co-signers: people whom together share responsibility on behalf of a
Business by jointly signing documents or cheques.
 Cover note: a temporary certificate of insurance issued by an insurance
Company to give immediate insurance cover until a formal document is
Prepared and issued.
 crossed cheque: a cheque across which two parallel lines have been
Drawn. The effect of crossing a cheque is to direct your bank to pay the
Cheque only through another bank account.
 Debit: To debit is to place an entry on the left-hand side of an
Account. A debit in a liability account makes it smaller. A debit in an asset
Account makes it larger.
 Debt: that which is owed. If you borrow money, buy something on credit or
Receive more money on an account than is owed, you have a "debt.
 Debtor: a person or business who owes money
 Default: to fail to meet an obligation when due, such as paying a debt.
 Demand: an order to comply with an obligation. In business, paying on
"Demand" means that the obligation must be satisfied immediately when
Requested.
 Depreciation expense: gradual reduction of the value of a fixed asset
And gradual application of this cost to the expenses of a business over the
Useful life of the asset.
 Disbursements: funds paid out of a business in settlement of obligations.
 dishonoured: the word used to describe a cheque, which the bank will
Not pay, because the customer’s account lacks sufficient funds.
 Drawer: the person who writes a cheque in payment for goods or
Services.
 Entity: an individual (sole trader), partnership, a body corporate, a
Corporation, an incorporated association or body of persons, a trust or
Superannuation fund.
 Entrepreneur: a person who organises and manages a business, but
Usually only applied to people who have shown exceptional ability and
Imagination in launching and succeeding with new business ventures.
 Equities: stocks and shares invested in a business and not bearing fixed
Interest.
 Equity capital: money provided by the business owner/s to finance the
Business.
 Excess: in an insurance policy, excess clauses specify that the
Policyholder will be responsible for a portion of claims under certain
Conditions.
 Expenses: costs incurred by a business in earning income, for example,
Rent, advertising, wages etc.
 Fidelity guarantee insurance: insurance against losses resulting from
The dishonesty of employee/s.
 Finance: money resources
 Financing: obtaining money resources. Businesses usually have to obtain
Finance at some time, either to go into business or expand operations.
 Financial statements: formal reports prepared from accounting
Records describing the financial position and performance of the business.
 fixed costs: costs, which are incurred by a business whether it is operating
To generate income or not and which do not necessarily increase or decrease
As a total volume of production, increases or decreases. Rent, for example,
Must be paid whether or not any business is accomplished.
 fixed assets: the land, buildings, vehicles, materials and equipment owned
By a business, which are used to earn revenue rather than being for sale.
 Direct costs: the costs incurred, in addition to fixed costs, as a result of
Manufacturing a product or providing a service. Direct costs are made up of
Direct material, direct labour and direct manufacturing or servicing costs.
 limited partnership: a legal partnership where some owners are
Allowed to assume responsibility only up to the amount invested.
 liquidate: to settle a debt or to convert to cash. This literally means to do
Away with.
 Liquidator: a qualified person appointed by a court to close down a
Business that is a proprietary company and realise and distribute its assets in
Payment of its liabilities.
 Liquidity ratio: a comparison of two accounts in a Balance Sheet,
Current assets divided by current liabilities.
 Loan: money lent at interest. A lender makes a "loan" with the idea that it
Will be paid back as agreed and that interest will be paid for the use of the
Money.
 Loss of profits insurance: insurance to cover loss of profits incurred by the
Policyholder in the event of some calamity overtaking the policyholder’s
Business, so that trading has to cease.
 Management: the role of conducting and supervising a business.
 Margin: the difference between the selling price and the purchase price
Of an item usually expressed as a percentage of the selling price. Compare
Mark-up.
 Marketing: finding out what customers want, then setting out to meet their
Needs, provided it can be done at a profit. Marketing includes market
Research, deciding on products and prices, advertising promoting
Distributing and selling.
 Marketing plan: details of specific tasks worked out by and for a
Business concerning how market research, product choice and pricing,
Advertising, promotion and distribution will be done.
 Marketing strategy: a business’ approach to marketing its products/ services
Expresses in broad terms, which forms the basis for developing a marketing
Plan.
 Market segmentation: the division of a market into segments. Each
Segment consists of a group of consumers with similar requirements, which
Can be distinguished from the requirements of other consumers in the
Market. There will be distinct differences between the goods and services
Needed to meet the requirements of each segment.
 mark-up: the price increase between buying at wholesale and selling at
Retail often expressed as a percentage of the wholesale or cost price. Compare
Margin.
 Debt capital: money from external sources used to finance a business. See
Also equity capital.
 Gross profit: the excess of net sales over cost of goods sold usually expressed
As a percentage.
 Hire purchase: system for financing the purchase of plant and
Equipment, where the ownership is vested with the lender until the final
Payment is made. The borrower is required to place a deposit and make
Periodic (usually monthly) repayments at a flat rate of interest.
 Income: money that is being earned by the business.
 Income statement: a financial document that shows how much money
(Sales) came in and how much money (costs) was paid out. Subtracting the
Costs from the sales gives you your profit and all three are shown on the
Income statement.
 Indemnity insurance: risk protection for actions for which a business is
Liable. Insurance that a business carries to cover the possibility of loss from
Lawsuits in the event the business or its agents were found at fault when an
Action occurred.
 Induction training: training for new employees regarding conditions of
Service, physical layout of the workplace, safety rules, local conventions and
Customs and supervisory procedures.
 Input taxed: some supplies are input taxed, which means you do not charge
GST for them but neither are you entitled to input tax credits for anything
Acquired or imported to make the supply.
 input tax credits: you are entitled to an input tax credit for the GST
Included in the price you pay for an acquisition or the GST paid for an
Importation if it is for use in your enterprise.
 Intangible assets: those assets of a business, which cannot be assigned a
Firm, fixed value, such as leases, franchises, goodwill and patent rights.
 Interest: the cost of borrowing money.
 Inter-firm comparison: a comparison between the financial and
Productive performance of a business with the industry averages.
 Inventory: the value of all the stock of physical items that a business uses
In its production process or has for sale in the ordinary course of doing
Business.
 Investment: money used to purchase any capital items for the business and
Expected to yield an income.
 Invoice: document which shows the customer charges for goods
Delivered or work done.
 invoice financing: see factoring
 Lessor: an owner who allows his/her land, buildings, plant or
Equipment to be used under a lease contract.
 Memorandum of association: a legal document that lays down the
Objects of a registered company and details of the regulation of the
Company’s business dealings. It is one of the two fundamental documents
Upon which registration of any company is based. See articles of association.
 Merchandise: goods that may be sold or traded.
 Merchandising: trading in a range of goods. Promoting the whole range
Of goods that are sold in a business.
 Mortgage: the transfer of right of ownership of a property from a debtor
To a creditor as security for a debt, with the proviso that once the debt is paid
Ownership is transferred back.
 Mortgagee: the organisation or person to whom the property is mortgaged.
In the case of a bank loan, the organisation is usually the bank.
 Mortgagor: a person who mortgages a property.
 Negative gearing: is when an investment is purchased with the assistance
Of borrowed funds and where the income from that investment (after the
Deduction of expenses) is less than the interest commitment in the course of a
Year
 Net: what is left after deducting all charges (see gross).
 Net profit: the remainder after all expenses of an accounting period are
Deducted from all revenue of the same period.
 Net worth: the owner/s’ interest in a business, calculated by subtracting all
Liabilities from the assets of the business.
 Niche: a small specialised segment of a total market.
 Payable: ready to be paid.
 Pay As You Go (PAYG) instalments: are the amounts you pay directly
To the Commissioner of Taxation to meet your income tax and other
Liabilities and are usually paid each quarter.
 Payee: person to whom money is paid
 Personal assets: the money you have in the bank, whatever is owed to
You, any securities (shares) that you own, the property you own, whatever
Part of your home that you own, your furniture and appliances and all the
Miscellaneous things that you personally own.
 Personnel: persons collectively in the employ of a business.
 Petty cash: a small amount of money kept for minor purchases for the
Business, which do not warrant writing a cheque.
 Power of attorney: power to act on behalf of another person for specified
Purposes.
 Premium: consideration paid for an insurance policy.
 Principal: in the case of a loan, refers to the actual amount borrowed and
On which interest is paid.
 Profit: total revenue less total expenses for a period of time calculated
In accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.
 Profit and loss statement: statement of revenue and expenses showing the
Profit or loss for a certain period of time.
 Profit margin: the amount that the price of a product or service is
Raised above its cost in order to provide a gross profit.
 pro-forma invoice: a document giving all the details of a proposed
Transaction, but not committing either the sender or recipient until the
Recipient pays the sender the amount shown. Commonly used by wholesalers
For the first transaction with new customers.
 Projection: a forecast of future trends in the operation of a business.
 Promotion: a means of increasing the public’s or industry’s awareness of a
Business and its services or goods.
 Proprietorship: the value of the proprietor’s assets in a business less any
External liabilities.
 Proprietary Company: a business which is owned by not less than two
Persons and not more than 50 persons and which restricts the right of the
Shareholders to transfer shares. Such a business is a separate legal entity and
Must use the words Proprietary Limited (Pty Ltd) after it name.
 Pro rata: in proportion.
 Rate of stock turnover (stock turn): the ratio of cost of goods sold over
Average stock (at cost). This indicates how many times, on average, the entire
Inventory (stock) was sold and replaced during the year.
 Ratio: the proportional relationship of one thing to another
 Receipt: a written acknowledgement of having received money or goods
Specified
 Receivership: the legal condition a company is placed in when an
Official receiver is appointed to investigate and manage its affairs.
 Residual: the pre-agreed estimated value at the end of a leasing period of
An item subject to a leasing agreement.
 Retail: to sell directly to the consumer, usually in small quantities in
Comparison with the total level of sales.
 Return on investment (ROI): the ratio of net profit after income tax,
Over owner’s equity. Usually expressed as a percentage.
 Right of assignment: in relation to business premises, a right given in
The lease agreement for a tenant to assign the lease to another tenant when
The business is sold.
 Sales: the total value of goods sold or revenue from services rendered.
 Service business: a business that deals in service activities such as a
Retailer, tourism business, banking, education provider, etc.
 Supply: for GST purposes, supply is defined as - a supply is any form
Of supply and includes: supply of goods and services; provision of advice or
Information; a grant, assignment or surrender of real property; a creation,
Grant transfer, assignment or surrender of any right; a financial supply; and
Entry into or release from an obligation to do anything, to refrain from an act
Or to tolerate an act or situation.
 Tangible asset: something substantial or real that is capable of being
Given an actual or approximate value.
 Tax invoice: a document generally issued by the supplier. It shows the price
Of a supply, indicating whether it includes GST, and may show the amount of
GST. It must show other information, including the ABN of the supplier.
You must have a tax invoice before you can claim an input tax credit on your
Activity statement (except for purchases of $50 or less).
 Tender: an offer in writing to carry out work, which has been specified
By another person. The offer quotes a fixed price, which will be charged for
Doing the work.
 Term loan: a loan for a fixed period of more than one year and repayable
By regular instalments.
 Trade credit: an arrangement to buy goods or services on account, that is,
Without making immediate cash payment.
 Trade discount: an allowance made by a seller to a buyer at the time of
Purchase, for the deduction of a percentage of the price, provided the
Payment is made within agreed terms.
 Trade mark: can be a letter, number, word, phrase, sound, smell, shape,
Logo, picture, aspect of packaging or any combination of these, which is used
To distinguish goods and / or services of one trader from those of another
 Trial balance: a list of all balances in the ledger at a given time.
 Undercapitalisation: insufficient investment of funds in a business.
 unsecured loan: a loan that is not backed up by any collateral, such as a
Home or an automobile offered as security.
 Valuation: the process of appraising the worth of property according to
Some recognised criteria.
 Variable costs: the costs additional to fixed costs of running a business,
That can vary depending on the level of demand and activity.
 Vendor: a seller of goods or of a business.
 Venture capital: capital invested in a business where the chances of
Success are uncertain.
 Volume: an amount or quantity of business activity.
 Walk in, walk out (WIWO): an expression normally used in its
Abbreviated form, regarding a business for sale. It indicates that the business
Is for sale as a going concern and may be purchased without interruption to
Trading.
 Controllable expenses: those expenses that can be controlled or
Restrained by the businessperson.
 Copyright: a type of property right which protects the expression of ideas
Such as literary or dramatic works, television productions, drawings etc.
From being used for commercial gain without permission of the copyright
Owner. Registration is not a prerequisite for protection.
 Cost of goods sold: the total cost to the business of the goods sold during an
Accounting period. In its simplest form this is the sum of the opening stock
Plus all purchases less the closing stock.
 Credit: an entry made on the right hand side of an account and
Indicating a gain to a liability, owner’s equity or revenue account.
 Credit application: a form to be completed by an applicant for a credit
Account, giving sufficient details to allow the seller to establish the applicant’s
Creditworthiness.
 Credit control: any policy designed to increase or decrease credit.
 Credit limit: the upper limit of credit that a business will allow a customer
To have.
 Creditor: a person or business to whom money is owed.
 Current assets: includes cash, short-term deposits, customers’ accounts,
Stock (includes work in progress, raw materials and finished goods), that will
Be converted into cash during the normal course of business, within a year.
 Current liabilities: short-term debts such as bank overdraft, creditors and
Provisions set aside to pay taxation and other commitments (for example,
Holiday or long service leave) and expected to come due within one year of
The Balance Sheet.
 Debenture: a fixed interest investment in a company, which has priority
For interest payments, generally redeemable after the lapse of a specified time
 Depreciation schedule: a table showing depreciable assets, the year each
Was purchased, its cost, the percentage by which it is depreciated each year
And written down current value.
 Director’s guarantee: a personal guarantee given by a director of a
Company that s/he will be personally responsible for a debt or other liability
Of the company. Usually requested in credit applications, leases, loans and
Hire purchase agreements.
 Discount: a deduction made from the normal cost or purchase price.
 Dividend: a distribution of the profits of a company among its members
Or shareholders.
 Drawings: withdrawals of assets (usually cash) from a business by a sole
Proprietor or a partner.
 factoring: involves the cash purchase of a business’ sales invoices at a
Discount, after which, the factoring company collects the invoiced amounts
From the business’ customers. Factoring is used where the business needs
Immediate cash.
 Feasibility study: an examination of a particular project or business to
Assess its chances of operating successfully, before committing large amounts
Of money to it.
 Financial year: an accounting period of 12 months, often coincident, for
Convenience, with the fiscal year (1 July to 30 June).
 Franchisor: the owner of a franchise system
 Fusion insurance: covers loss caused by damage to an electric motor by an
Electric current, and is particularly important for refrigerated stocks.
 Gearing: the ratio between the business’s debt and equity finance.
 Goodwill: the excess price asked for the sale of a business over the value
Of its physical assets; an intangible asset, the price of which represents a
Payment for the existing client base and future profits.
 GST-free: some supplies are GST-free, which means you do not charge
GST for them but you are entitled to claim input tax credits for anything
Acquired or imported to use in your business.
 Gross: the total overall amount. For example, gross profit is the
Trading profit of a business without any deductions for business expenses.
 Lay-by: an arrangement where the customer in a retail store makes a
Deposit on an article and pays the amount owing in instalments, while the
Retailer stores the article until the last payment has been made.
 Lease: a legal contract covering the possession and use of property, plant or
Equipment between the owner (lessor) and another person (lessee) at a given
Rent, for a stated length of time.
 Leasing finance: a method of acquiring business equipment without
Capital outlay. The bank or finance company buys the equipment and leases it
To the customer, in return for regular rental payments for the duration of the
Lease period.
 Lessee: a person who enters into a lease contract as the user of the
Land, buildings, plant or equipment.
 Wholesale: selling in large quantities to businesses which will then resell to
Consumers in smaller quantities.
 Workers’ compensation: money paid to an employee to compensate for
Injuries received in connection with their work. All employers must insure
Against claims for this kind of compensation.
 Working capital: the excess of current assets over current liabilities of
Any business at any time.
 Franchise: a business arrangement in which knowledge, expertise and
Often a trade mark or trade name are licensed to an operator, generally for
An initial fee and a yearly payment.
 Franchisee: the purchaser of a franchise licence who operates one or more
Outlets of the franchise business.
 Posting: making entries in an account system or book from original
Documents such as invoices and receipts.
 secured: protected or guaranteed as in the case of a loan where the
Lender holds the title of some asset until the borrower has repaid the loan in
Full.
 Sole trader: a person who trades by himself/herself without the use of a
Company structure or partners and bears alone full responsibility for the
Actions of the business.
 Solvent: the condition of a business when all debts can be paid as they
Come due.
 Stock: physical items (inventory) that a business uses in its production
Process or has for sale in the ordinary course of doing business.
 Stock control: the method of determining how much stock should be
Held and how much needs to be reordered and when, with the aim of
Controlling stock holding costs while maintaining efficient operation of the
Business.
 Stock turnover: the ratio of cost of goods sold over average stock (at
Cost). This indicates how many times, on average, the entire inventory (stock)
Was sold and replaced during the year.
 Stock at valuation (SAV): stock valued at wholesale or cost price.
 Supplies: in relation to the GST, supplies include the goods and services
You sell through your enterprise and many other transactions such as
Providing advice or information, leasing out commercial premises or
Providing hire equipment.
 Not negotiable: words often written on crossed cheques, which do not
Prevent the cheque from being transferred. See account payee only.
 Official receiver: a person appointed to investigate and manage the
Affairs of a company in receivership
 operating expense: all the expenses normally incurred in running a
Business, during an accounting period, excluding the cost of goods sold.
 Option: an agreement, often for a consideration, which permits the
Purchase or sale of something within a stipulated time, in accordance with
The terms of the agreement. For example, a right by a tenant to take up a
Further lease of premises, usually under conditions outlined in the original
Lease.
 Overdraft: a form of loan by which a person with a trading bank current
Account is given permission to continue making drawings on the account up
To an agreed limit, after the balance has been reduced to nil.
 Overhead: expenses which are incurred in producing a commodity or
Rendering a service, but which cannot conveniently be attributed to
Individual units of production or service. Examples are heating, lighting etc.
 paid-up-capital: the total capital of a company. It comprises both shares
Issued for cash or for acquisition of assets and bonus shares.
 Partnership: a legal business relationship of two or more people who share
Responsibilities, resources, profits, and liabilities.
 Patent: the granting by a government of monopoly rights to the owner
Of an invention to manufacture and sell it for a certain number of years,
Conditional on the owner being willing to immediately reveal the ideas
Incorporated in the invention, so that they can be published for the
Advancement of knowledge of the general public.
  


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