Data Conversions and Encoding Techniques
Types of Conversions

  1. Digital to Digital Or Encoding digital data into digital signals  
  2. Analog to Digital Or Digitizing an analog signal
  3. Digital to Analog Or Modulating a digital signal
  4. Analog to Analog Or Modulating an analog signal

Types of Digital to Digital Encoding
  • Unipolar
  • Polar 
Polar encoding has 3 subcategories:
  1. Non Return to Zero (NRZ)
  2. Return to Zero (RZ)
  3. Bi phase
Two of which have further variations of their own. The following diagram depicts different encoding techniques of Digital to Digital Polar Encoding.
[Image: rnvZYQh.png] 
  • Bipolar
There are three types of Bipolar Encoding. 
  1. Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI)
  2. B8ZS
  3. HDB3
[Image: y9evXJc.png]

Analog to Digital Or Digitizing an analog signal
  • First step is Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)
  • Second step is Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
  • PCM's first step is Quantization and then Binary Coding is done and finally Digital to Digital Encoding
Digital to Analog Or Modulating a digital signal
  • Amplitude shift keying(ASK)
A popular ASK technique is On-Off Keying (OOK)  
  • Frequency shift keying(FSK)
  • Phase shift keying (PSK)  
  • Quadrature Amplitude Modulation(QAM)  
There are numerous variations of QAM like 4 QAM & 8 QAM.

Analog to Analog Or Modulating an analog signal
  • Amplitude Modulation (AM)  
  • Frequency Modulation (FM)  
  • Phase modulation (PM)  
Thank you for writing this article @Rana, very useful for CS601 Data Communication students.

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