PAK301 Assignment 2 Solution Spring 2018

PAK301 Assignment 2 Solution
Spring 2018

Question 1: Briefly analyze the major Issues which remained barriers for development in Pakistan during the first eleven years (1947-1958)?


Establishment of Pakistan: In August 1947 Pakistan became independent - the name consists of P for Punjab, K for Kashmir and S for Sindh. There was another part not mentioned in the name, (East Bengal, separated from West Pakistan by 1600 km of Indian Territory. While the political center - capital Karachi (later Rawalpindi, then Islamabad) and the economic centers (Karachi, Lahore) all are located in the west, the majority of the population lived in East Bengal.
Immediately after independence, Pakistan had to deal with a massive refugee problem while 5.3 million Hindus fled from Punjab and Sindh into India, 5.9 million Muslims fled from India into West Pakistan. 3.3 million Hindus fled East Bengal, 1.3 million Muslims fled from India into East Bengal.
Another problem was formed by the 500+ Indian principalities who had been 'indirectly' ruled by Britain. Both India and Pakistan expected these to opt for either of them. While this went through without major complication in most cases, for instance Bahawalpur was integrated into Pakistan's province of Punjab, the case of Kashmir was complex. The vast majority of Kashmir was and is Muslim; the fathers of Pakistan therefore counted on it forming a central element of the new state. However, the Rajah of Jammu and Kashmir, a Hindu, opted for India. The First Indo-Pakistani War of 1948 was fought over the issue; the result was that Kashmir was partitioned, the smaller western part being held by Pakistan, the larger eastern and central part held by India. In Baluchistan and the NWFP, sentiment for the establishment of an independent Kalat respectively Pathan State was evident; Afghanistan claimed the Pathan territory within Pakistan.
Government: Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan and the country's first governor-general, died in 1948, even before the brief war. A provisional constitution was promulgated in 1951, ending the status of Pakistan as a dominion. In March 1951, a conspiracy of army officers with alleged Communist sympathies was uncovered. Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan was assassinated Oct. 16th 1951. In 1955 the princely states were annexed into adjacent provinces. In 1956 Pakistan was declared a Federal Islamic Republic, the constitution promulgated. Elections were held on provincial level, the delegates to the federal parliament elected by the provincial assemblies.
The government was moved from Karachi to Rawalpindi in 1958. After a military coup d’état in 1958, Gen. Ayub Khan assumed the presidency in 1960.
Foreign Policies: Pakistan fought a war with India in 1948, which was followed by an Indo-Pakistani Cold War. India in 1949 declared Pakistan to be a foreign nation, and thus the Indo-Pakistani trade subject to customs tariffs. India claimed full control over her waterways; Pakistan's main rivers enter the country from Indian territory. This question was of vital to Pakistan.
Pakistan was a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and sought close cooperation with Islamic countries. Pakistan established diplomatic relations with the United States in 1949, with the USSR and the PRC in 1950. In 1954, Pakistan joined SEATO. In 1955, Pakistan and Iran acceded to the Baghdad Pact (also called CENTO, between Great Britain, Turkey and Iraq). In June 1957, diplomatic relations with Afghanistan were restored. In 1958 the enclave of Gwadar (hitherto belonging to Oman) was annexed.
Domestic Policies: The early years of Pakistani history (1947-1958) were marked by political instability. The nation's geography posed problems; not only was East Bengal remote from the larger West, but also the connection of the new capital Karachi with the most densely populated province of Punjab was poor. The partition of the Punjab, Bengal and Kashmir caused further problems; the traditional Punjabi capital of Lahore now found itself on the Indian border, having lost the eastern part of its hinterland. East Bengal was cut off from her traditional capital and port, Calcutta; Dacca had to be developed as the administrative center, Chittagong as its main port. The administration of Sind was relocated to Hyderabad, to create room for the administration of Pakistan (BBY 1949).
In March 1954, the Muslim League suffered a crushing defeat in elections in East Bengal. Bengali was declared official language in East Bengal. Following riots, the state of emergency was declared in East Bengal. In July 1954, Communist parties in both parts of Pakistan were declared illegal. In 1955 the provinces were abolished, replaced by East Bengal and West Pakistan. An act of 1957 abolished the separate electorates for Muslims and Non-Muslims, established in 1909.
The Economy: In 1948-1951 Pakistan's economic policy was focused on solving problems of the day, the integration of large numbers of refugees, questions arising from the development of Indo-Pakistani relations. When Britain devaluated the Pound Sterling and the Indian Rupee followed suit in 1951, Pakistan maintained the value of her Rupee, which resulted in her main export products, to a large part traditionally sold to markets within the British Empire and Commonwealth, becoming more expensive; Pakistan experienced a recession. Pakistan did devaluate her currency in July 1955.
According to the 1951 census, Pakistan had a population of 75.8 million, of whom 42.0 million lived in East Bengal, 33.8 million in West Pakistan.
In June 1951 the National Development Plan was launched. The partition of British India into India and Pakistan had left the latter with a partially truncated infrastructure; the emphasis of the NDP lay thus in infrastructure projects turning the existing infrastructure into a functioning national one, while securing the food supply and developing the country's industries. The projects were financed with Colombo Plan credits and other overseas loans. Several hydroelectric dams constructed in the NWFP, as part of the NDP, had both economic and political purpose, as the Pakistani government feared India might divert the headwaters of the main rivers on which Pakistan depended for irrigation. In 1954 construction of a pipeline to transport gas from gas fields in Baluchistan to Pakistan's industrial centers was begun.

Question 2: What do you know about the Constitutional Commission established in February (1960) under the chairmanship of Justice Shahabuddin?


On 17 Feb 1960, Ayub appointed a constitution commission with the former Chief Justice of Pakistan, Justice Shahabuddin as its Chairman. To examine the progressive failure of the parliamentary form of government leading to the abolition of the 1956 constitution and determine the causes and nature of the failure of thee terms. Lack of leadership, lack of political training, delay in elections, nonexistence of economic equality, lack of state parliamentary system, role of president, role of army and bureaucracy, lack of education. The commission came to the conclusion that the parliamentary form of government had proved failure and noted the following cause. The commission observed incidents and tendencies noticed so far are no doubt difficult but they can hardly be said to justify the view that we are not fit for any representative form of government and That we therefore we need a kindly head of state with unlimited powers. Lack of proper election procedure and defects in late constitution and unjustified interference by the head of the state in the ministers and political parties, and interfering by central government in the functioning of the government of the province and lack of well-organized  and disciplined parties and the general lack of character in the politicians. Qualified franchise based on literacy and property and commission also recommended that members of legislatures both provincial and central should be elected directly by the people and restricted franchise and commission favored separate electorate for all Pakistan. Independence judiciary and commission preferred a system of impeachment to remove the chief justice and other judges of supreme court. The resolution of the impeachment were to be signed by not less than one-fourth of the total number of members of the house of people. The commission prescribed the same procedure for the impeachment of the president, vice president, governors and minsters.

Note: Do not copy/paste. You won't get any marks.

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